Marketing: What it is, its types and everything you need to know

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Marketing It is the responsibility of management to create and deliver value to a public-bowel, increasing the performance of a brand. Their strategies mix art and science in the quest to satisfy unmet needs and desires of the market, causing companies to grow and increase their sales.

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See also: Template powerpoint ready to make a Presentation of Marketing Plan memorable!

Marketing: what is it, its types and everything you need to know 1

Marketing - Meaning and Objectives

The word marketing is English and began to be used in Portuguese without translation, unlike other skills of business administration. The literal translation derives in "mercadologia", which says a lot about the term. Market means market, so marketing can be understood as market use or market development.

Dictionary-defining marketing definitions define the term as a set of strategies 4 P's (product, price, square and promotion) to meet the needs of a target audience. The development of these strategies would eventually increase the acceptance of a product or a service, causing the company responsible to grow its revenue and profit.

So does marketing serve to sell more?

If you put the business processes from a broader marketing perspective, this question may make sense. But this is not always true. There are examples of companies that position themselves as luxury companies and have done bad business by giving up a price strategy aligned with this positioning to sell more.

Recently I heard something about marketing that made me think:

The role of marketing is to make 'sales' irrelevant.

If you look at this phrase, it can make all the sense in the world. Think of a company that does not develop any marketing strategy. O commercial manager you need to win every sale in the "arm", running behind, convincing potential customers. Already a company that develops well-made marketing strategies, attracts customers ready to buy without major proactive efforts.

In my opinion, the role of current marketing is add perceived value to a brand, making it more and more embedded in people's daily lives. What was once the target audience becomes a connected tribe, which exchanges information and trends via networks. People who are not part of it want to do it. Nowadays, products and services are ephemeral. Brands not.

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Brief History of Marketing

It is very common to think of marketing as something current, inherent in the globalized world, especially with the advent of the internet and the digital marketing industry. But the truth is that, from the moment people appeared willing to undertake business or political, marketing came into existence, albeit informally.

There are those who say, for example, that the way Julius Caesar controlled the masses, with many communications about his campaigns and opponents read out loud in a public square, was one of the precursor forms of marketing.

Speeches in public square: first form of communication as marketing

Below are some historical landmarks that show the origin and evolution of marketing as a formal strategy throughout history:

  • 1450 - Gutenberg invented the printing press - it allowed the printing of the first ads
  • 1605 - Relation aller Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien - German, this newspaper is recognized by many as the first and came to usher in a format of print media that lasts until today
  • 1663 - Erbauliche Monaths-Unterredungen - the first magazine appears, also in Germany
  • 1839 - The practice of preaching posters with ads on properties in England was banned because of the exorbitant circulation of the practice. Outdoors were created to circumvent this ban
  • 1867 - Older record of an outdoor rental
  • 1920 - After military use, the radio started to have broadcasts with entertainment and news
  • 1941 - First ad on TV
  • Decade of 70 - Beginning of the use of the term "telemarketing"
  • At the end of the 20th century came the internet and cell phones and evolution became exponential

Replica of the Gutenberg Press

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The Pillars of Marketing

There is a concept created a long time ago by the teacher Jerome McCarthy, broadcast by Philip Kotler, which remains fairly current. These are the 4 P's marketing: price, square, product and promotion. These are the basic pillars, along with the positioning of the company, of any marketing strategy. We have one Full article on 4 Ps Marketing, but I will speak a little of each of them to your understanding.

Marketing: what is it, its types and everything you need to know 4


Every company sells something. The product, which can also be a service in this case, has a different perspective in the prism of marketing planning. The purpose here is to understand which attributes valued by the public should be developed and passed through the product and the experience of using it.


Many people look at the price of a product as a financial attribute of it. But the pricing of a company, is part of her marketing planning. The more the company seeks a positioning of differentiation, but the price can be differentiated. If a company is equal to its competitors, its price should also be. The more value perception, the more one can charge.

Pricing Strategies


Every marketing strategy needs to encompass a set of places and channels in which the public can have access to the products or services and contact with the brand. Website, physical store, social networks are examples of squares. Each one of them should have its own strategy, but aligned with the overall marketing objectives of the company.


The promotion consists of how the messages that the company intends to propagate will be put in contact with the public. It encompasses the communication strategy and brand personality.

The most interesting is that we can often notice the cross between pillars. There are companies that differ promotion strategies to different squares. Price Strategies can vary as well, and up to experience of using products and services.

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Different Types of Marketing

With the advent of the internet and digital marketing, there is much confusion between types of marketing that are groups of specific strategies and types that are mere groupings of channels. Below I've put together some common terms, linked to these types, used in the middle of marketing and I'll tell you a little bit about each one.


O branding is a kind of strategic planning within the marketing universe. It is the competence that will guide all other actions, online or offline. The translation of brand is branding, so branding can be understood as something close to "working the brand" or "developing the brand".

In a branding project, the company will define its positioning, the purpose and promise of the brand, the people it wants to achieve and how it will spread its attributes and values ​​in the user experience. The goal is to generate the brand platform, a kind of guide that the company must follow in its strategies and everyday, to remain strong in terms of image.

Branding Project

Market research

Many people underestimate the comprehensiveness of a market research. They believe it's just putting together questionnaires and applying to understand what people think of a product. This is just one example of quantitative research, in which it is sought to statistically quantify opinions. Research can take the qualitative form, too, which focuses more on the subjective aspect seeking ideas from individual experiences.

Market research is critical to a company's many decisions. It is impossible to imagine, for example, a branding project that does not start with much research. How to define the personality of the brand and its objectives without listening to the most interested?

We recommend that before any marketing action, at least the simplest form of qualitative research should be done. Chat with customers!

Digital marketing

O digital marketing industry is a grouping of channels and strategies in the online environment. Many professionals make the mistake of believing that it is a completely independent medium from the classic, offline version. However, in an integrated world, digital mkt must follow the marketing guidelines as a whole. The company will not have two different images in the online and offline environment.

We did a more complete article, explaining the types of digital marketing, but I'll quickly explain some of the key here below:

WITHOUT - Search Engine Marketing (search engine marketing)

It consists of content optimization or media buying to print text ads in search results. O SEM comprises famous strategies as exemplified below:

  • SEO - Search Engine Optimization (Search Engine Optimization) - set of methods to optimize pages of the site so that they appear organically well positioned in the search results.
  • Sponsored links - buying keywords searched by potential customers on an auction-like system to appear at the top of searches. The most well-known platforms for buying media in search engines are the Google Ads and Bing Ads.

Sponsored Links on Google

SMM - Social Media Marketing (social media marketing)

Developing branding through management of company profiles or products within key social networks, such as Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, etc.

Email marketing

Creation of lists and relationship with customers and interested publics by sending content and offers by email.

Outbound Marketing and Direct Marketing

This format comprises all direct selling actions without the use of intermediaries or indirect language. It can be executed in person, via point-of-sale, or remotely via email, links, direct mail, text messages and leaflets, among other forms.

It consists, in other words, in the proactive prospecting new clients.

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Inbound Marketing

Unlike Outbound, the Inbound Marketing reverses the logic of the sale. Through techniques of content production, data acquisition and relationship, the company that practices it, intends to attract the customer even her. You may have seen ads offering free digital books on Facebook, for example.

By registering to download, you will notice that you must fill in some data beforehand. From this data, with the aggregate knowledge of the company analyzing other customers, you will receive a series of content relevant to you. The goal of the company in this strategy is to gradually make you aware that it is a reference in the subject. When you want to test the product, you will go after it and not the other way round.

Inbound Marketing Funnel

CRM and Relationship Marketing

The cost of conquering a new customer is always greater than the cost of maintaining an existing customer. This is the main premise of marketing of relationship and CRM - Client Relationship Management (Customer Relationship Management). In the past, people were much less connected to each other. Therefore, companies focused only on direct advertising on TV or in print media.

But that time has changed. Now people talk about products and services and give opinions on social networks. Nevertheless, the number of companies offering the same products and services is increasing. How to differentiate yourself? Creating incredible relationships in your customer base. Loyalty actions rooted in the whole team, personalized service as a weapon and bonuses, and advantages for longer-lasting or higher-income clients are examples of CRM actions.

Content Marketing

O content marketing is to engage your audience through the production of relevant content. Content can be offered in various formats - text, video, podcast, digital book, presentation - and distributed on various channels - email, social networks, blog, etc.

The best way to start content production is by researching with the target audience to discover their pain, dreams and influences. Then find out which are the most consumed media among them to define the format and, hands down! It's time to produce the content.

Many companies make the mistake of outsourcing content production and doing it without giving much attention, believing that this is an SEO strategy. Content will not grow in google searches if it is not very relevant to some audience. I particularly believe that good content must be authorial and follow the brand personality and guidelines chosen through the branding project.

Guerrilla Marketing and Viral Marketing

The main idea of guerilla or viral marketing is to greatly increase the impact on customers with a low investment through creativity. With the advent of social networks, small initiatives that call attention can be shared by everyone. We call ourselves viralization to this phenomenon.

A recent example was the "discussion" in the networks around the ovomaltine milk shake in which Bob's, Mc Donald's, Burger King, Giraffa's and even Philips (read about here). Nubank has gained a lot of spontaneous media, including in large channels, because sent a Pikachu to a customer who mentioned Pokemon Go in attendance.

Guerrilla marketing

If you're going to venture into guerrilla marketing, beware of the hype. Many brands try to surf a wave that is fashionable to viralizar and the shot ends up backfiring, generating a negative exposure of the mark.

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Affiliate Marketing

Affiliate Marketing is the process in which a company recruits interested in selling their products or services. To motivate them to sell, it creates a compensation and bonus structure. Bonuses can be percentages of the price of the product. Usually, for this process to work, the bonus margins need to be quite interesting. Otherwise, they will not justify any sales efforts of the affiliates.

Another important point is that the chosen affiliates already have some type of public, so that these sales occur naturally. Without the need for constant motivation and exhaustive training. Typically, the best affiliate profile is one that has an audience, through content sites, email lists, social networks, but lacks a product to monetize their channels.

Growth Hacking

The translation of growth hacking to the letter would be similar to "Macetando o Crescimento". And that is exactly what the methodology preaches. Instead of making big plans and advertising, growth hacking preaches by small tests in several channels and much analysis of results. The tests that show positive signs deserve that the bet be doubled.

This procedure must be repeated until the user is able to have fully mature advertising channels.

Growth Hacking Team

Expertise Marketing

O experience marketing or sensory is focused on brand interactions with the user. Every purchase has a process of research, consideration and decision by the customers. After purchase, there is the use experience of the product or service. Developing experience marketing begins by mapping this entire process end-to-end. From there, customer branded touch points should be studied and improvements tested.

A good example of this type of strategy was made by the airline Virgin America (now Alaska Air). In the process of buying / using their customers, they made important discoveries. For example, the presentation video of airplane safety regulations is something that all companies did the same. He did not arouse any emotion in his customers. In other words, it was a point of contact with the brand that was being thrown away. From that conclusion, they recorded the masterpiece below.

Personal marketing

As the name says, this is the application of marketing strategies on a personal level. The ideal strategies will depend on the goals the person is pursuing. Usually, this person wants to be reference in some area or just famous. In this case, to make it work, one must first study the channels that the chosen audience frequents. In addition to go testing what they like to consume in terms of content until they hit the hand.

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More Articles on Marketing:

The 4 Ps Marketing or Marketing Mix
How To Make a Marketing Plan
How to do market research
Branding: What is and how do brand management?
All about Digital Marketing
All about Inbound Marketing
The Importance of Relationship Marketing
Cool guerrilla marketing actions

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  1. The Architecture and Industry blog is motivated to share everything that is most relevant, interesting and informative in the universe of architecture. With a lot of research and dedication, we want to be one of your references when it comes to 'cool tips and ideas'.

  2. Filippo, I really liked the article, especially the phrase that says about the role of Marketing in making sales “irrelevant”. Based on this idea, the company is concerned with understanding its customer and thus taking strategies aligned with the customer's needs. The consequence said reflects on more sales and brand valuation. Thanks for the content.

  3. According to my research, they are two different things. What Leandro posted is endomarketing, and internal marketing has another function within the company (Wikipedia itself says).

  4. Leandro, good morning. I found your post in a survey to find out what it's called this type of marketing that takes advantage of products sold at a profit to the merchant but which generate a store flow. Ex. Parking cards sold in newsstands; phone recharges etc. Can you clarify? Grato, Silvestre Reis

  5. I really liked the post. I think I can contribute with 02 remarks:

    1. Internal marketing is also known as Endomarketing;
    2. I saw a few days ago the term B2B2C: Business to Business to Customer.


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