The definition below is used by AMA - American Marketing Association - to define the concept of what is marketing. Now, how many "marketers" are there? Yes, there have already been several types of marketing and we will see each of them in this post.
Marketing: activities, processes and institutions whose function is to create, communicate, deliver and exchange offers that have value for customers, partners and society in general.
The industrial revolution brought with it modernities in the area of industrial equipment, now it was possible to produce in scale, for the mass public, thus gaining market and reducing costs, this does not fit the diversities of products. As the basis was standardization, it is understood that the public should consume that product that the company was offering, without hesitation or counterpart of those who were there to buy. With the advent of the industrial revolution and the development of production technologies, 1.0 marketing begins, that is, product-oriented marketing.
marketing 1.0, product-oriented marketing.
According to Kotler (2010), marketing 1.0 was the centralization of ideas / forces on the product, ie the buyer was not the focus of the organization, but the product. One of the best exponents of this era, taking into consideration the fact that it was the industrial revolution, was Henry Ford with his car, the Model T.
He remembers the way Ford was dealing with the sale of the model, and one of the most memorable phrases in industrial history proffered by this "The car can be any color, as long as it is black". The phrase is a quote from Ford that primarily exemplifies what the 1.0 marketing model was, the extreme focus on the product did not take into account the wants and / or specificities of the buyers, but the will of the company.
With the information age, the information base forces the marketing forces to be consumer oriented. At the 2.0 marketing, consumers are replete with information about the products, their specifications, their features and, above all, their value. Armed with information, the consumer goes directly to the product, technical forces to make comparisons between product information, to choose the best product according to your needs and preferences.
Therefore, 2.0 marketing, working on a consumer basis, creates a wide area for marketers, ie the focus now is on creating ways to reach the minds of consumers, understand their needs, and deliver them the product they want. fulfills its purpose and is able to please the client.
With marketing 3.0, organizations will work with values, not financial, but emotional values, personal values. The basic objective of marketing 3.0 is to creating solutions to the problems that societies face and how this can be done through organizations with their products and / or services. From this moment, marketing will work with consumers being these, human beings, with emotions, desires, wishes, hopes, without losing the bases already presented by the 1.0 and 2.0 marketing phases.
"In times of global economic crisis, 3.0 Marketing acquires even greater relevance for consumers' lives as they are affected by rapid changes and turmoil in the social, economic and environmental spheres." (KOTLER, 17, 2012)
As social media they are largely responsible for this ability to create people and their relationship with the creation of phase 3.0 of marketing. It is the information made available by the entities of society, in these social media, that outline the ways in which organizations work in marketing, analyzing data regarding the wants, tastes, desires, preferences, opinions about a product or service, all data are relevant and utilization liabilities.
"Connections between friends on social networking sites, such as Facebook and MySpace, can also help companies develop insights about the marketplace. Researchers at IBM, Hewlett-Packard and Microsoft are collecting data from social networks to develop profiles and design better communication approaches for their employees and consumers. "(KOTLER, 18, 2012)
O 4.0 marketing works for organizations to communicate with customers in the best and fastest way possible. The agents of this market, are connected, can and do research on what they want, so they know price and advantages many times faster than the market itself. The discourse is worked between the entities, in social networks, brands need to stand out to be remembered by these new consumers, who, several times, point out their preferences in social media and this interferes in the business model of these organizations.
With the development of the 4.0 market, connectivity has become the key word. Many theories used until then as bases for the development of the markets ended up being changed.
The new media of interaction, smartphones, tablets, w, among other technologies bring consumers closer to information about the desired products and services. Now, when wanting something, the consumer searches for technical specifications, asks in groups and forums in social networks and, not least, researches the potential of the product / service in relation to its price.
Kotler, P., & Keller, KL (2006). Marketing administration. São Paulo: Pearson Prentice Hall.